blog imageSeptember 11, 2023
blog imageBy Trreta

Demystifying Web Application Architecture: A Comprehensive Guide

Demystifying Web Application Architecture: A Comprehensive Guide

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It's challenging to envision a world devoid of the Internet in today's context. With over 50 million people actively using it every day, this number continues to expand.


In the pursuit of scaling their businesses and maximizing profitability, entrepreneurs are increasingly taking their ventures online. A website has emerged as a valuable tool for companies, enabling them to boost traffic, engage customers, and drive sales.

The evolution of modern software applications and information systems has advanced to a point where the term "architecture" can aptly describe them. Crafting a seamlessly functioning and dependable information system from the ground up is now as challenging as constructing a multi-story building.


In the realm of business, cost-effective application development is a paramount objective. Achieving this goal necessitates a solid grasp of what constitutes a sound architectural foundation. Is your architecture poised for future adaptability? Can it seamlessly expand and maintain its relevance in the market? Furthermore, discerning the pivotal components and functionalities to incorporate into a web application can be a daunting task.


The array of questions seems endless, and unraveling their answers can prove challenging unless you possess a deep understanding of effective web application architecture, along with its integral components and modules. Fret not, for in this blog, we will comprehensively delve into everything you need to know on this subject.


Let’s understand What is Web Application Architecture-


Web application architecture serves as a blueprint outlining the concurrent interactions among various components, database instances, middleware systems, user interfaces, and servers within an application. It essentially defines the logical framework that establishes the connection between the server and client-side, ultimately enhancing the overall web experience.


Web Application Architecture Diagram-


Why is a Web App Architecture Important?

Market trends are in constant flux, user expectations are ever-evolving, and business growth is an ongoing journey. In this dynamic landscape, a robust web application architecture becomes essential. Without it, your business application risks falling into the chaotic realm of the "big ball of mud" architecture anti-pattern.

A well-designed web application architecture forms a sturdy foundation, capable of efficiently managing varying workloads and adeptly adapting to evolving business needs. This, in turn, ensures a swift user experience and enhances overall web app performance. It enables the seamless rendering of both static and dynamic pages, while also facilitating concurrent development by breaking down the structure into manageable modules, thereby reducing development timelines.

Moreover, a structured architecture simplifies the integration of new functionalities without disrupting the overall system. In terms of security, web architecture divides the application into distinct blocks, each independently secured to mitigate security threats, including those posed by malicious code. Furthermore, applications built on a future-proof architecture retain the capacity to introduce new features and maintain low latency, even as user numbers increase.

How Does the Web App Architecture Work?

The two basic parts of every application are:

  1. Client Side, Commonly referred to as the "frontend," is where the code logic is crafted using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, all of which are stored within the user's browser. It serves as the focal point for user interaction within the web application. 
  2. Server Side, This component, often known as the "backend," is responsible for managing the business logic and handling requests based on URLs and HTTP protocols. The backend code on the server side is typically written in languages such as Java, PHP, Ruby, Python, and more.


In addition to these components, there is another critical element: the database server, which supplies the requested data to the server side. Furthermore, it's important to understand server-side rendering and server-side scripting as integral aspects of web application architecture.


Let’s understand how an architecture functions:


When you enter a URL, like ',' into your browser and press enter, a series of actions unfold. The browser initiates a request to the Domain Name Server (DNS), which identifies the corresponding IP address and forwards your request to the server hosting Walmart's website. The server receives your request and, in turn, directs it to the data storage infrastructure to locate the relevant web page and retrieve the requested data. Finally, the webpage is rendered on your screen, presenting the desired information.


Layers of Web App Architecture:


  1. Presentation layer/Client layer: Constructed using HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and various frameworks, the frontend plays a pivotal role in facilitating communication between the user interface and the web browser, thereby enabling seamless user interactions.
  2. Business logic layer: Responsible for defining both the business logic, including domain and application logic, as well as rules, the backend component takes on a crucial role. It handles incoming browser requests, executes the relevant business logic tied to these requests, and subsequently transmits the results to the presentation layer.
  3. Persistence layer: The component responsible for data persistence, often referred to as the Data Access Layer, maintains a close connection with the business layer. Within it, there is a database server that retrieves data from relevant servers. This layer also encompasses various third-party integrations, such as payment gateways, social logins, and GDS systems commonly employed in travel websites.
  4. Database layer: Recognized as the Data Service Layer, serves as the repository for all data, and plays a pivotal role in upholding data security. It achieves this by segregating the business logic from the client side, ensuring that sensitive data remains protected.


Each of these layers operates independently, functioning in isolation. Components within each layer are encapsulated and handle the specific logic associated with that layer. For instance, components situated in the presentation layer are responsible for managing presentation logic, whereas those in the business layer focus on handling business logic.


This isolation also offers a valuable advantage for the future, particularly when modifications are needed in the web application. It allows for changes to be implemented within one layer without causing disruptions or impacting the components in other layers. This modularity ensures a more streamlined and adaptable development process.


Web Application Components-


Web app components consist of two parts –


  1. User interface components form an integral part of a web application's visual interface, primarily focused on the presentation layer. They do not engage directly with the underlying architecture but are confined to the visual aspects of a web page. These components encompass a wide range of elements, including activity logs, configuration settings, dashboards, statistics, widgets, notifications, and more, all designed to enhance the overall user experience.
  2. Structural web components can be categorized into two main types: client and server components. Client components are located within the user's browser and directly engage with the functionality of web applications. These components are typically constructed using commonly used elements such as HTML files, CSS files, and JavaScript files, which collectively contribute to the formation of these structural components.


On the flip side, server components can be divided into two main categories: the web application server, responsible for managing the business logic, and the database server, tasked with storing persistent data. These server components are typically developed using a variety of frameworks, including PHP, Java, Python, Node.js, .NET, and Ruby on Rails, among others. These frameworks play a crucial role in shaping the server-side elements of a web application.


Models of Web Applications-

When it comes to constructing the components mentioned earlier, various models are at our disposal. At Trreta, our steadfast commitment lies in selecting the most fitting model to cater to your specific business objectives and deliver exceptional app performance. Our team of skilled engineers excels in tailoring the optimal architectural model based on the particular type of web application you intend to develop. Let's delve into the array of available options:


  1. The model relying on just one web server and one database could be considered somewhat outdated, given its reliance on a sole server and database to manage all incoming requests. This setup implies that if the server experiences downtime, your app will also be affected. Nevertheless, it's a commonly employed practice for testing purposes and can be a viable choice, especially if you're a startup operating within budgetary constraints.
  2. Multiple web servers and one database model mitigate the risk of data loss by ensuring the presence of a backup server in case one server experiences a failure. However, it's important to note that the website's availability could still be at risk due to the reliance on only one database.

Multiple web servers and multiple database models minimize the performance risk of the application by introducing redundancy in database storage. You have two options: you can either store identical data across all databases or distribute it evenly among all servers. This redundancy ensures improved reliability and performance for the application.


Types of Web Application Architecture-


Choosing the most suitable architecture is a fundamental practice, taking into account a range of factors, including application logic, features, functionalities, and specific business requirements. The right architecture serves as the backbone that defines the overall purpose and effectiveness of your product.

Web applications can be broadly categorized into four main types, as listed below:


  1. Single Page Application Architecture

Single Page Applications (SPAs) aim to address the traditional challenges associated with creating seamless and user-friendly web applications, ultimately delivering an intuitive user experience. SPAs tackle these challenges through a specific approach.


In SPAs, a single web page is initially loaded, and subsequent content updates occur dynamically, without the need to load entirely new pages. This means that instead of navigating to a new page, SPAs refresh and update the content on the current page, providing a more fluid user experience. Moreover, SPAs align the logic of the front end with that of the back end, achieving synchronization. The development of SPAs predominantly relies on client-side JavaScript frameworks to enable this dynamic content generation on the client side.


2. Microservice Architecture

Microservice architecture has emerged as a highly regarded alternative to both Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and monolithic architecture. This approach champions the concept of loosely coupled services, allowing them to be developed, tested, maintained, and deployed independently. These web services are designed to communicate with one another through APIs, enabling them to collaborate effectively in solving intricate business challenges. Additionally, you have the flexibility to incorporate clean architecture principles into your microservices if that aligns with your objectives and requirements.



Deploying monolithic applications can be a challenging endeavor due to their tightly coupled high-level components and the need for stable, rigid servers. However, the microservices architecture framework has effectively addressed this challenge by breaking down applications into multiple distinct service components. This approach streamlines the connections between these service components and eliminates the necessity for intricate service orchestration.


Notably, several tech giants, including Amazon, Netflix, SoundCloud, Comcast, and eBay, have gained prominence for adopting the microservices architecture.


3. Serverless Architecture

Serverless architecture is an innovative design pattern that simplifies the execution of code by relying on cloud service providers, eliminating the need for manual deployment on your servers. In this approach, multi-page applications are created and operated without any hands-on server management, as the servers are handled by third-party cloud infrastructure providers like Amazon and Microsoft.



Serverless architecture empowers developers to concentrate more on enhancing the quality and complexity of distributed applications, enabling them to achieve exceptional scalability and reliability. In this approach, app developers collaborate with third-party cloud infrastructure service providers. It can be broadly categorized into two types: Backend-as-a-Service (BaaS) and Function-as-a-Service (FaaS).

BaaS streamlines the frontend development tasks, eliminating the need to handle backend server operations. Popular BaaS products, like AWS Amplify, exemplify this approach. FaaS, on the other hand, operates on an event-driven model, allowing developers to decompose applications into small functions, focusing primarily on code and event triggers. The remaining aspects are managed by FaaS service providers like AWS Lambda and Microsoft Azure. This methodology not only enhances code efficiency but also ensures remarkable scalability.

We leveraged technologies such as headless CMS, React, and integrated APIs to support the serverless features. Additionally, our experts utilized Amazon EC2 to handle substantial traffic, Amazon S3 for video storage, and Amazon CloudFront as a Content Delivery Network (CDN) to optimize performance.

4. Progressive Web Application

In 2015, Google unveiled Progressive Web Apps (PWAs), a groundbreaking approach to constructing web applications. PWAs are designed to provide web applications with robust native-like functionality, heightened capabilities, improved reliability, and seamless installation processes.



PWAs exhibit compatibility with virtually any web browser and can seamlessly run on a wide range of devices. Their adaptability extends to tablets and desktops, offering flexibility in-app functionality. Unlike traditional apps, PWAs are easily discoverable and shareable via URL links, eliminating the need for app store downloads. Installing these apps is a breeze, with users being able to add them to their device's home screen quickly.

PWAs excel in delivering efficient performance, even under conditions of poor internet connectivity or offline mode. Several renowned companies, including Uber, Aliexpress, Alibaba, Pinterest, and Starbucks, have made a name for themselves by developing their products in the form of PWAs.

Web Application Architecture Best Practices-

Selecting the appropriate architectural patterns for your web application is an initial crucial step, but its ultimate success hinges significantly on how it's designed. Merely emulating popular web apps, which may not necessarily align with your specific business requirements, can lead to counterproductive results. To avoid such pitfalls, it's essential to adhere to some guiding principles. Ensure that your web app's architecture adheres to the following guidelines:

  • System flexibility and efficiency
  • High Scalability
  • Well-thought structure of code
  • Stability and reliability
  • Easy bug detection through A/B testing
  • Component reusability
  • Utilization of security standards
  • Sections to collect user feedback
  • Immutable infrastructure with consistent staging environments

Furthermore, here is a list of tools and options that can contribute to delivering the best web app experience:

  • IDE tools: Webstorm, Github’s Atom, NetBeans, and AWS Cloud9 are a few IDEs for productivity enhancement.
  • UX Builder tools: Invision, Figma, Sketch, etc., are commonly used today to design and improve user experience.
  • Integration tools: MuliSoft, Cleo, JitterBit, and deliver a seamless, engaging, and unified experience.
  • Frameworks & Libraries: React, Angular, Python, Veu, Express, Django, etc., are the most popular frameworks to deliver quality end products.


The success of a contemporary web application is intricately tied to its architecture. Adapting to evolving requirements can be a formidable task, and even minor missteps can potentially jeopardize the viability of your product.

Crafting a modern web application architecture necessitates the expertise of a seasoned and qualified architect who comprehends the inherent limitations and challenges. 

At Trreta, we boast a team of qualified architects equipped to guide you in determining the most suitable framework and architecture to bolster your business objectives.

If you find yourself at a crossroads, searching for a proficient web architect to address the needs of your business application, we stand ready to assist you in fulfilling your product requirements. Let's initiate a conversation today!

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